* La solution Pacifique (" Pacific solution ") c'est quoi ?
6 décembre 2001, BBC News
Australia's offshore camps are 'hellish'
"Australia's line hardened in August when it refused entry to 433 mainly Afghan refugees who were picked up by a Norwegian freighter near Australia's Christmas Island. There was an international stand-off which ended when New Zealand and Nauru agreed to take the boatpeople - the latter in return for payment.
Since then, Australia also done a deal with Papua New Guinea. More than 1,000 asylum seekers have been sent to camps since August - costing Australia more than $77m. Another 540 are on Christmas Island after Fiji and Kiribati refused to take them. In September Australia formally adopted the policy of turning away all boatloads of asylum seekers, unless the boat was in danger of sinking."
5 février 2002, Le Monde, article de Frédéric
Le Tampa et la solution du Pacifique
John Howard (Premier ministre australien)
a décidé d'empêcher un cargo norvégien, le Tampa,
qui avait recueilli 460 clandestins, d'accoster sur les côtes australiennes
de l'île de Christmas. Après plus de deux semaines de pourparlers,
Canberra décidera finalement de transporter ces émigrants
vers l'île de Nauru, où ils sont aujourd'hui toujours détenus.
Pensant avoir trouvé le remède miracle, les libéraux
ont alors eu l'idée de la "solution du Pacifique", selon
laquelle tous les clandestins seraient envoyés dans une des micro-républiques
perdues au milieu du vaste océan. Un premier groupe de 800 personnes,
bientôt suivi d'un second "convoi" de 400 demandeurs d'asile
a été transféré à Nauru, un pays dont
la population totale est de 12 000 habitants, et 1 000 émigrants
devraient trouver refuge en Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée. Mais l'arrivée
de nouveaux bateaux chargés de boat people a commencé à
montrer les limites de ce système, après les refus de Tuvalu
et de Fidji de participer à ce programme.
au dire même de l'ancien haut-commissaire des Nations unies pour les droits de l'homme, John Pace, cette politique de transferts des boat people est aberrante d'un point de vue économique. Canberra a dû dégager en toute urgence 87 millions d'euros pour financer cette "solution" qui n'en est pas une, soit une hausse de 50 % du budget annuel du ministère de l'immigration. "En Australie, détenir et gérer le dossier d'un demandeur d'asile coûte en moyenne 30 000 euros à l'Etat. Cette note est cinq fois supérieure pour les immigrants envoyés à Nauru", s'énerve Margaret Piper (directrice du Conseil du réfugié d'Australie). "
5 février 2002, BBC News
Q&A: Australia's 'Pacific Solution'
" Australia has come under fire from aid agencies and religious leaders for its policy of sending boat people to Pacific island nations - its so-called Pacific Solution - to have their asylum claims assessed. Phil Mercer in Sydney explains what the controversy is all about. What is the Pacific Solution? It involves the processing of asylum seekers in two Australian-funded camps in the Pacific. One is in Papua New Guinea at the Lombrum Naval Base on Manus Island, about 350 kilometres (210 miles) off PNG's north coast. The other is on the tiny island state of Nauru, the world's smallest republic. The conservative government of John Howard sees the camps as a solution to what it sees as the problem of boat people - or illegal immigrants - heading to Australia across the Indian Ocean from Indonesia. Mr Howard hopes the offshore centres will deter others. How many asylum seekers are involved? Australia's Immigration Department said in February 2002 there were 356 asylum seekers at the Manus Island centre in Papua New Guinea. Most are from Iraq. There are 1,159 detainees in the Australian-funded camp on Nauru. That is a total of just over 1,500. How much is it all costing? So far, no official figures have been released. There are reports, however, that the President of Nauru, Rene Harris, negotiated a deal worth at least $15m (Aus $29m) to house more than 1,000 asylum seekers."
Carte de localisation de l'ile de Manus en PNG avec
la cartothèque des Nations Unies
* " Solution Pacifique " ou " Solution du double prix " ?
16 April 2002, Yahoo Australia&NZ News
Pacific solution doubles cost, report shows
" Federal government figures show the cost of detaining
boat people on Christmas and Cocos islands is more than twice the cost of
keeping them on the mainland, a newspaper report said. The cost to taxpayers
of detaining a refugee on Christmas Island is $293 a day and on $236 on
Cocos Island, The Australian reported. This contrasts with processing costs
on the mainland: $87 a day at Port Hedland, $119 at Curtin and $102 at Woomera.
But the immigration department, in figures it released in response to a question by Labor senator Jim McKiernan, has failed to reveal the daily costs of keeping more than 1,500 detainees on Nauru and Papua New Guinea's Manus Island, the paper said. A spokesman for Immigration Minister Philip Ruddock said there was no breakdown of costs available for detainees housed under the Pacific solution. But he said any costs would be offset by the low number of onshore detainees since the Tampa crackdown, the paper reported. "
A vessel carrying 364 boatpeople
17 Avril 2002, Yahoo Australia&NZ News
True cost of Pacific solution revealed
" Asylum seekers cost about three times more to process under the Pacific solution than those processed on the Australian mainland, the Senate inquiry into the children overboard affair has revealed. Australia is spending $114 million on housing and processing detainees under the Pacific solution - $72 million for Nauru and $42 million for Manus Island - this financial year.
This meant taxpayers were paying around $413 a day for
every asylum seeker detained on Papua New Guinea's Manus Island and $218
a day for those on Nauru.
That compares with an average $116 for a detainee held in one of six Australian mainland centres. But the cost of detaining people on Nauru and Manus Island included the cost of establishing the detention centres while such expenses were absent from figures relating to onshore centres. On top of the $114 million for processing asylum seekers, Australia gave Nauru a sweetener of $20 million worth of assistance and put $1 million into a trust account for PNG's agreement. "
* La Nouvelle-Zélande : une politique bien différente
5 Mars 2002, Yahoo Australia & NZ news
Tampa decision still weeks away
" New Zealand's acceptance of all but one of the
131 asylum seekers it took from the Tampa had no implications for Australia,
the federal government said on Tuesday.
New Zealand announced it had granted asylum to 130 boat people rescued by the Norwegian freighter Tampa last year and involved in a stand-off between Australia and Indonesia. The remaining 300-odd passengers are still on Nauru, being processed by the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) in line with the federal government's Pacific solution. But a spokeswoman for Immigration Minister Philip Ruddock said the fact that most of the New Zealand applications had been successful did not mean the same would apply to the remaining boat people. She said the UNHCR was expected to make an announcement on the status of the remaining asylum seekers within weeks but she could not say how many of the successful refugees would be brought to Australia. The situation was complicated by the fact all but 100 of the Tampa passengers were from Afghanistan, and might want to return home given the changed circumstances, the spokeswoman said. She said an announcement was expected over the next week about the government's offer to repatriate Afghan asylum seekers. The government has promised up to 4,000 Afghans - including 1,100 in detention centres in Australia, Papua New Guinea and Nauru - a cash payment to go home, although the amount has yet to be announced. "
8 janvier 2003, ABC Radio Australia News
NZ accepts refugees from Pacific detention centres
" New Zealand is to resettle 150 refugees who have spent months in detention centres in Papua New Guinea and Nauru. The refugees, understood to be mostly from Iraq and Afghanistan, will arrive in the country in the next two weeks. They will initially be held at the Mangere refugee resettlement centre in Auckland. An Immigration spokesperson says the refugees have all been confirmed as genuine by staff from the United Nations High Commission for Refugees.The refugees detained on Manus Island, off the coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, and at a facility in Nauru will form part of New Zealand's annual intake quota of 750. New Zealand has already accepted 136 refugees processed at Manus Island and in Nauru in August last year. "
Le site du gouvernement Néo-Zélandais
En relation avec le sujet
on pourra consulter sur le site "australie.recherche.fr"
la Page Août 2001 - L'épopée du Tampa au large de L'Australie
la Page Septembre 2001 - L'installation des réfugiés du Tampa à Nauru
la Page Mars 2002 - Manisfestation de soutien aux détenus de Woomera
la Page Juin 2002 - L'Australie moins accueillante avec les boatpeople